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LSMS+

The Living Standards Measurement Study – Plus (LSMS+) is a project established with grants from the Umbrella Facility for Gender Equality Trust Fund and the World Bank Trust Fund for Statistical Capacity Building, and is implemented by the World Bank LSMS Team, in collaboration with the World Bank Gender Group and partner national statistical offices.

The LSMS+ project aims to improve the availability and quality of individual-level data collected in household surveys, and is, at start, a direct response to the World Bank IDA18 commitment to support 6 IDA countries in collecting intra-household, sex-disaggregated household survey data on 1) ownership of and rights to selected physical and financial assets, 2) work and employment, and 3) entrepreneurship – following international best practices in questionnaire design and minimizing the use of proxy respondents while collecting personal information.

The work builds on the World Bank partnerships with (1) United Nations Evidence and Data for Gender Equality (EDGE) Project on methodological experimentation and international guidelines on measuring asset ownership and control from a gender perspective, and (2) the International Labour Organization and the Data2X project on methodological experimentation related to operationalization of the new definitions of work and employment, with a focus on subsistence agriculture.

The first three surveys supported under the LSMS+ include: Malawi Integrated Household Panel Survey, Tanzania National Panel Survey – Extended Panel, and Ethiopia Socioeconomic Survey. LSMS+ aims to provide financial and technical assistance to three additional surveys in 2019/20.

The 2016 round of the Malawi Integrated Household Panel Survey (IHPS) was the first survey that was supported under the LSMS+.

The IHPS 2016 was implemented by the National Statistical Office with technical and financial support from the World Bank Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) initiative and the LSMS+, using the World Bank Survey Solutions Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) platform.

The survey covered a nationally-representative sample of 2,508 households that had been previously interviewed in 2013 and 2010. With support from LSMS+, the IHPS 2016 attempted to interview all adult household members (18 years and above) in private, regarding labor and ownership of and rights to selected physical and financial assets, as well as education and health. The individual interviews were conducted following the administration of all applicable questionnaires (household and agriculture); simultaneously, if possible; and with a gender match between the enumerators and the respondents.

On assets, specifically, the individual questionnaire included questionnaire modules that collected asset-level information on respondents’ personal (whether exclusive or joint) ownership (and rights, if applicable) for the following asset classes: dwelling and residential parcel; agricultural parcels; financial accounts; and mobile phones. The questions on “ownership” attempted to focus, separately, on reported ownership, documented ownership, and/or economic ownership, depending on the asset class.

The resulting data and documentation are publicly available at the World Bank Microdata Library.

The 2019/20 round of the Tanzania National Panel Survey – Extended Panel with Sex-Disaggregated Data Collection (NPS-SDD) is the second survey that is being supported under the LSMS+.

The NPS-SDD 2019/20 is implemented by the National Bureau of Statistics with technical and financial support from the World Bank Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) initiative and the LSMS+, using the World Bank Survey Solutions Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) platform.

The survey covers a nationally-representative sample of 900 households that had been previously interviewed by the NPS in 2008/09, 2010/11, 2012/13, and 2014/15. With support from LSMS+, the NPS-SDD 2019/20 will interview all adult household members (18 years and above) in private, regarding labor and ownership of and rights to selected physical and financial assets, as well as education and health.

On assets, the individual questionnaire is the first to include a parcel-level module that is recommended for sex-disaggregated data collection on both SDG indicators 1.4.2 and 5.a.1 - covering all land owned or accessed via use rights, irrespective of specific type of land use. The parcels that are identified as part of the household interview will be fed forward into the interview of each adult household member, and the respondents will be asked in private to report on their personal reported, economic and documented ownership of and rights to each parcel (whether exclusive or joint). In addition, they will provide parcel-level data regarding their perceived tenure security. This module will be complemented with additional asset-level modules on soliciting information on respondents’ personal ownership for the following asset classes: dwelling, financial accounts; and mobile phones.

Further, the existing individual-level NPS-SDD modules on labor as well as education and health will be part of the individual questionnaire. On labor, the module will collect the required information for the new definitions of work and employment, as endorsed by the 19th International Conference of Labour Statisticians. And for the purposes of the existing module on household non-farm enterprises (NFEs), the enumerators will ensure that the respondent for each NFE is the associated manager.

The field staff training will start in January 2019, and the fieldwork will begin in February 2019, for a period of 12 months.

The 2018/19 round of the Ethiopia Socioeconomic Survey (ESS) is the third survey that is being supported under the LSMS+.

The ESS 2018/19 is implemented by the Central Statistical Agency with technical and financial support from the World Bank Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) initiative and the LSMS+ project, using the World Bank Survey Solutions Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) platform.

The survey covers a nationally-representative sample of 7,200 households. With support from LSMS+, the ESS 2018/19 will interview all adult household members (18 years and above) in private, regarding labor and ownership of and rights to selected physical and financial assets, as well as education and health.

The implementation of the individual questionnaire will be different compared to its counterparts in Malawi and Tanzania, considering (a) all land is state-owned in Ethiopia (as such the scope of questions on rights to land will be limited) and (b) the ESS relies on resident enumerators responsible for entire EAs rather than the mobile survey teams.

On assets, the individual questionnaire will include a parcel-level module that is recommended for sex-disaggregated data collection on both SDG indicators 1.4.2 and 5.a.1 - covering all land owned or accessed via use rights, irrespective of specific type of land use. The parcels that are rostered as part of the post-planting visit in 2018 will be carried forward, updated with additional parcels in 2019, as applicable. These parcels will in turn be fed forward into the interview of each adult household member, and the respondents will be asked in private to report on their personal reported, economic and documented ownership of and (a limited set of) rights to each parcel (whether exclusive or joint). In addition, they will provide parcel-level data regarding their perceived tenure security. This module will be complemented with additional asset-level modules on soliciting information on respondents’ personal ownership for the following asset classes: dwelling, financial accounts; and mobile phones.

Further, the existing individual-level ESS modules on labor as well as education and health will be part of the individual questionnaire. On labor, the module will collect the required information for the new definitions of work and employment, as endorsed by the 19th International Conference of Labour Statisticians. And for the purposes of the existing module on household non-farm enterprises (NFEs), the enumerators will ensure that the respondent for each NFE is the associated manager.

The field staff training for the implementation of the ESS household, individual and community questionnaires is planned to take place in May 2019, following the Population and Housing Census. And the fieldwork will begin in June 2019.

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